Sunday, May 14, 2017

gentrification: aburgesamiento

For some reason the term gentrification is widely imported into Spanish, even though there's this
other great option that is more easily understood by first time listeners. Maybe it's a neologism, maybe I sort of made it up years ago - though others seem to have as well as it has at least a little googlage (including the translation of this abstract of a great geography article that connects it to gendered fear in Toronto). But hey, in French gentrification is embourgeoisement, so it's a clear parallel. 

Not sure how I would render the version gentrifuckation, that's a bit harder. 

Thursday, May 4, 2017

para nuestros muertos ni un minuto de silencio, toda una vida de lucha

On May Day the NY Times ran an article about Colombia with what I thought was mistranslation. It was an article about Julian Conrado, a FARC guerrilla famous for singing rebel songs.

In it they render a line from one of his songs as
"For our dead, not a minute of silence, a whole life of combat."

The version that I am much more familiar with is
"Para nuestros muertos ni un minuto de silencio, toda una vida de lucha." I have repeatedly rendered it as
"Not one minute of silence for our dead, but an entire lifetime of struggle!"

This is not only a line from a song, but is widely chanted at marches and events throughout Colombia, and by Colombians around the world. The vast majority of people who use this line are not guerrillas, but part of social movement struggles. They are not referring to guerrillas killed in combat, nor to continuing combat - but to people killed for their struggles for justice and peace, and to their commitment to continue that organizing work in their name.

So I thought that the original was lucha, and that to render lucha as combat here not only changed the meaning of the original slogan, but dangerously tarred a much broader movement with a guerrilla brush - a long standing tactic to delegitimize justice organizing in Colombia.

But then it turns out that his song lyrics do actually use the word combate, rather than lucha. I'm left wondering which version came first. I'm assuming that it was the lucha version, and that the FARC modified it. Does anyone know?

Friday, March 31, 2017

#Noesdehombres: thisisn'tmanly

The NYT today ran a story with this great headline:




The story is about an activist art installation of a penis seat (see this video to see what it's like and people's reactions) that is part of the campaign against sexual harassment #Noesdehombres. They offered this isn't manly as a "rough translation" of the tagline. I don't love it as a translation, but I don't have anything better. Do any readers? 

The subway seat is creative, if a bit obnoxious - but the other images in the campaign, like this one, are about getting men thinking about if this was aimed at your girlfriend, or your mother. Perhaps effective in the short term, but not exactly empowering for women. 

Tuesday, January 10, 2017

violencia por prejuicio: hate crime

The literal rendition of this is of course violence based on prejudice, but in English it is far more common to use the term hate crime. I suppose that the term in Spanish includes violence that does not rise to the level of a crime, or perhaps even a misdemeanor - and so is a broader term. If you wanted to be a stickler and use the less common literal translation I would add a qualifier the first time you use it, something like 'more commonly called hate crimes in English.'

I have been reading about violence against LGBT people in Colombia and in Spanish violencia por prejuicio is widely used to describe it. The report Cuerpos Excluidos, Rostros de Impunidad gives an overview of it. Carlos's is just one rostro of the 110 LGBT people who were killed in Colombia in 2015.


Wednesday, January 4, 2017

add and stir: agregar y revolver

This expression is often used to argue against an "add and stir" approach. This would be, for example, hiring a few women without changing any family leave policies or creating any workplace flexibility. So the stir here means incorporate into the existing structure, without changing it. I'm working on an article where I'm trying to think through whether or not the Colombian peace accords just added LGBT and stirred, or how much adding LGBT to the accords really changed the overall approach.

I saw this translation used by Serrano Amaya in

Serrano Amaya, José Fernando. 2013. “Agenciamiento E (in) Visibilidad de La Diversidad Sexual Y de Género En La Construcción de Paz.” In Paz Paso a Paso: Una Mirada Desde Los Estudios de Paz a Los Conflictos Colombianos, edited by José Fernando Serrano Amaya and Adam Baird, 53–78. CINEP y Editorial Javeriana. available here 

Sunday, December 18, 2016

Is Louise doing translation or interpretation?

Amazingly there is a mainstream movie out where a woman academic saves the day with her language skills! I can't recommend it enough. But what exactly is Louise Banks doing in the movie Arrival (trailer below)? Translation? Interpretation? Neither exactly ...



Translation renders a written source text into a written version in the target language.

Interpretation renders from an oral source to oral target.

If you have a written source text and read it out loud, that is to say, you render it orally into the target language, we call that a sight translation.

If you have a transcript of a conversation in the source language, and you render it into a written version in the target language, we call that transcriptlation.

Most of the time what Louise seems to be doing in the movie is transcriptlation - but towards the end she seems to learn the alien's language well enough to do some sight translation.

You don't need to know these later two terms really, but if you want to be taken seriously as a language professional, or even just as someone who uses language services well, it is essential that you at least use the terms translation and interpretation properly. Yes, I know they are widely misused - but that is no reason for you to misuse them.

I have posted here before on how and why I ask social movements to get these terms right. Basically, they are different skills. You could be a good translator and a horrible interpreter. I personally will doubt your interpreting skills if you tell me you are a translator when you mean interpreter!

Thursday, November 17, 2016

enfoque de género: gender approach (enfoque diferencial part 2)

I am absolutely thrilled that the Colombian peace accords have been renegotiated, and that the differentiated approach in it is stronger than before, addressing many of the critiques in my previous post about it. I recently blogged the term enfoque diferencial as differentiated approach. I continue to see the false cognate focus widely used in the media, as well as the false cognate of gender focus for enfoque de género (which is one part of the broader enfoque diferencial in the accords, which now clearly include age, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, and ethnicity).

The term enfoque diferencial is fairly new, but enfoque de género is a term widely used in multilateral treaties and agreements. Gender approach is the standard UN and EU translation. A good tool for finding these is what used to be called the eurodicautom and is now, sadly, called iate.

As for the term differential vs differentiated, I have spent way too much time obsessing over the difference. The Real Academia defines diferencial as

1. adj. Perteneciente o relativo a la diferencia entre las cosas. Un estudio diferencial.
2. adj. Que diferencia o sirve para diferenciar. Caracteres, matices diferenciales.

I believe that it's this second definition that is at work in this term. I was utterly convinced that differentiated conveyed that meaning more clearly in English, but I have come around. It is not un enfoque diferenciado, but actually uno diferencial. It may not be a term in as common use in English as in Spanish, but it does exist. Merriam-Webster gives the simple definition of differential as

relating to or based on a difference : treating some people or groups differently from others.

Their full definition is:

1 a :  of, relating to, or constituting a difference :  distinguishing b :  making a distinction between individuals or classes c :  based on or resulting from a differential d :  functioning or proceeding differently or at a different rate

2 :  being, relating to, or involving a differential or differentiation

3 a :  relating to quantitative differences b :  producing effects by reason of quantitative differences

(Thanks to Kath for getting me to question this - I chewed over this term for months!)




Sunday, October 9, 2016

socializar: do outreach, public education, spread the word, promote

I am heartbroken about the peace vote in Colombia. I am particularly disturbed by how it was shaped by an active campaign of misinformation about the feminist aspects of the accords, including anti-feminist and homophobic fear mongering. Up to 1/3 of people voting no said they believed that the accords were an attack on 'family values'.

While the no vote was spreading lies, fear, and hate - the yes side did not do a great job of public education and outreach. They could have done a much better job of explaining what exactly was in the complicated accord, in particular to counteract the lies spread by the other side. In Colombian Spanish at least, doing this sort of work is often referred to as 'socializar' - whether it be a peace accord, or the results of your research, or a campaign for hand washing. The term generally conveys images of holding meetings in rural areas where the issue is explained and then discussed. I think our closest cultural equivalent in English, certainly in social justice contexts, is doing outreach.

In discussions of the vote, I keep hearing people misuse the false cognate socialize - even Arlene Tickner, whose analyses are worth keeping an eye out for, does so in this video below of an interesting discussion on Al Jazeera's inside story about why the vote for peace failed in Colombia. The meaning of socialize in English is very different (think either cocktail parties or making someone behave according to the rules of the group), and this misuse can easily lead to some serious misunderstanding.

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

balígrafo: bullet pen



This is the pen that was used to sign the Colombian peace accords on Monday. It reads: Las balas escribieron lluestro pasada. 'Las balas escribieron nuestro pasado, la educación escribirá nuestro futuro. Unfortunately I can't think of any way to match the great bala - bolígrafo play on words here in English - can you?

At any rate, here's hoping for a yes vote for peace on October 2nd. It's absolutely an imperfect agreement, but it's a great first step. Below is a short video arguing that this peace agreement is actually feminist!



Monday, September 12, 2016

social justice interp training in US

If you are bilingual, and want to get in to interpreting for social movements (and are on the East coast or in the South of the US), there is a great training opportunity coming up Sept 30 - Oct. 2nd at Wayside. It's put on by fabulous compas and I recommend it highly.
If you don't fit this profile - please spread the word and help build a strong core of movement interps - because more and better interpretation makes for stronger movements!

Friday, August 19, 2016

ablism: capacitismo

Years ago (2007) I blogged ablism as capacitadismo, at the time my own invention. Well it hasn't caught on, but capacitismo now has some decent googlage and a wikipedia entry:

El capacitismo es una forma de discriminación o prejuicio social contra las personas con discapacidades, también conocidas como personas con diversidad funcional. También puede conocerse como discriminación de la discapacidad, capacitocentrismo, fisicalismo u opresión de la discapacidad.

Definición

La visión de la sociedad capacitista es que las personas «capacitadas» son la norma en la sociedad y las personas con discapacidad o con diversidad funcional deben adaptarse a la norma o excluirse del sistema social capacitista. Los capacitistas sostienen que la discapacidad es un «error» y no una consecuencia más de la diversidad humana como la raza, la etnia, la orientación sexual o el género.

and on that note, my friend Andrea Parra writes:

Desde hace dos años nos hemos reunido mes a mes preparando el informe que llevamos a la ONU. Necesitamos financiar dos activistas más para que vayan a hablar sobre los derechos de las personas con discapacidad en el primer examen a Colombia ante el Comité sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad. Ha sido un proceso verdaderamente democrático, nos ha obligado pensar y repensar posiciones, discutir y rediscutir textos, a definir estrategias para ser realmente incluyentes en los espacios que creamos y me conmueve profundamente ver que un movimiento dividido gracias a la medicalización forzada, tiende puentes de participación política y solidaridad. Por favor donen hoy aca a la campaña con cualquier monto que puedan.

Thursday, August 11, 2016

lactivist: lactivista

I've posted this one before (years ago), but was recently reminded of it by this lovely video of an action in Bogotá for the right to breast feed in public. I agree - a real peace includes being able to peacefully breastfeed wherever and whenever! (Though it might be a bit tricky to be a lactivist while engaging in kayaktivism.) Oh, and this week is, strangely, world breastfeeding week.

Wednesday, August 3, 2016

enfoque diferencial: differentiated approach

enfoque diferencial: differentiated approach

This term is sometimes mistranslated with the odd false cognate of differential, and sometimes even as differential focus, which completely misses the mark. The term is widely used in Colombia but has been particularly in the news of late because the peace negotiators finally added gender to the agreements, and spelled out ways that the war had affected women differently and thus how the peace transition also should.

Treating men and women 'the same' is not actually equality - rather it serves as a way to reinforce structures of inequality. So too with other oppressed groups, and the term enfoque diferencial in Colombia is widely used to refer to a differentiating the delivery of programs and policies not just by gender but also race, ability, class, urban or rural status, etc. (though all too often just one of these at a time). Far too often this is just a 'saludo a la bandera', but these latest agreements are very specific and I feel somewhat hopeful about them.

Ironically though, in adding an approach that is differentiated by gender, they really don't differentiate among women, in even the most basic intersectional way. As Ginny Bouvier argues in her review of the accords (unfortunately falling again into the use of the confusing false cognate):

"there was little reference in the summaries of the eight areas highlighted to the differential needs, experiences, and capacities of women and LGBTI individuals.  Ethnic and territorial rights, which are fundamental rights for indigenous and Afro-descent populations, are not mentioned in these summaries.  There is no reference to special protections (or reparations, which presumably have not yet been fully defined) for widows young girls, or single heads of households.  Ethnicity, age, class, and marital status, among other things, matter in how a person experiences war and peace. Ideally, these will be addressed in future reviews of the accords.

It was also a bit off-putting that in discussing the gender changes to the agreements reached to date, the chief negotiator basically said that if these peace accords stick it will be because women make them work on the ground. It seems like a lot to ask of those who were least involved in the armed fight, but maybe he's right.

A final note on terminology: In the Canadian context rather than the term gender differentiated approach I hear more often that a program or research project is "gender sensitive". I don't love that term though, it seems like a bureaucratic obfuscation.

Wednesday, July 27, 2016

caserio: hamlet/ small village

Following up on my last post on the translation of the Colombian term vereda (which means quite different things in other countries, including path in Spain and alley or lane in Venezuela) I noticed that in this recent useful article in NACLA about reactions to the peace process in Putumayo, Winifred Tate seems to be translating vereda as hamlet. I think this is a mistranslation and may be due to a common confusion as to the legal definition of vereda in Colombia. Though vereda sometimes gets used to refer to the rural area where a few homes are grouped together, technically a Colombian vereda is a large sprawling rural area, most of which does not have homes anywhere near each other. Inside a vereda there is generally at least one caserio, or small settlement, ie hamlet - though really, that term always sounds quaint and a bit hobbit like to me so I prefer to translate it as small village.

(photo from the Tate article: Alianza members light candles welcoming peace in Mocoa, the departmental capitol of Putumayo (Photo courtesy of Paula Fernández Seijo))

Wednesday, July 13, 2016

vereda (Col): rural community

In the past I have blogged vereda as township, which I still like - but this rendition works well if you are not being picky about levels of government, and want to use a broader English that could be more easily understood outside of the US (and yes, I realize that is ironic when I used the very US term county in my last post).

I noticed this translation of the term in the video below, put out recently by the great folks at FOR Peace Presence, detailing the resistance of a rural community that they accompany - much of whose space was illegally taken over by a military base and who have refused to leave despite decades of pressure from the military.


Militarization and Peace from forpeacepresence on Vimeo.

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

zonas veredales transitorias de normalización: rural township based temporary normalization zones


I am thrilled by the recent break through in the Colombian peace negotiations, and spent several hours last Thursday getting weepy while watching the telesur live feed of the signing of the cease fire. Finally! The end of fighting in the world's longest war!

One of the things that they established was the process by which arms would be handed over. These zones are one of the two sorts of areas where 7,000 to 8,000 FARC guerrillas will spend 6 months demobilizing once the final peace accords are signed. Never in the Americas has a group this large demobilized, nor has it ever been done this quickly. Adding to the challenge, they will be demobilizing while other armed groups are still operating, and looking to move in on the areas that they have controlled (both neo (or post) paramilitaries and the ELN guerrillas). This peace transition is going to be difficult, and it can use all of the support and attention we can give it.

One of the ways we can support this process is by translating the terms involved clearly in ways that are more easily understandable to an English speaking audience. I'm also geeking out on this term because I am a geographer.

I noticed that Adam Isaacson first rendered these as “Temporary Hamlet Zones for Normalization” - but later when he tweeted this map, they had been simplified to simply Temporary Normalization Zones". It's important to clarify that the zones will not take up the entire areas in red here, only some small part of each, since there are many veredas in a municipio. He used the false cognate here municipalities, but as you can see from their size, they are quite large, and I translate the Colombian term municipio as county. You can have townships in a county, but you wouldn't expect to have a hamlet in a municipality. Maybe that's why he dropped the term on the map? You also wouldn't expect a hamlet to be a legal entity, or for there to be thousands of them, as there are veredas in Colombia. I also imagine a hamlet to be quite small, but a vereda can actually cover a fair bit of area, with scattered homes throughout. Often these are not gathered into any kind of village as the term hamlet might make you think. I have in the past posted here my argument for translating the Colombian term vereda as township, but I have since had people tell me that there are both urban and rural townships in English. Since the Colombian vereda is rural, I have added that term here for clarity, but I think it would work without the rural if space or time is an issue.  

Thoughts? Comments? 

Wednesday, June 15, 2016

swords into ploughshares: espadas en arados

Juzgará entre nación y nación, arbitrará a pueblos numerosos. Convertirán sus espadas en arados, harán hoces con sus lanzas. No se amenazarán las naciones con la espada, ni se adiestrarán más para la guerra. - Isaías 2:4

He will judge between the nations and will settle disputes for many peoples. They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore. - Isaiah 2:4 

I had the honor of interpreting last weekend at the Global Mennonite Peacebuilding Conference and Festival with some great colleagues. One of my compas, Rebecca Yoder Neufeld, pointed me to an amazing online resource for biblical translations. Bible gateway has a quick search of every possible version of the bible, in both English and Spanish. You can simply enter the word ploughshares and up this comes - and then you can easily switch to other ver
sions. It's really amazing how many versions of the bible there are. In many of the more recent Spanish versions they use rejas de arado instead of arados. I'd love comments on which you think works better.

Thanks to the conference photographer that took this pic of me at one of the few moments when my mouth was closed! Above are my compas Noe and Paul, hard at work in our great little booth.

Sunday, June 5, 2016

watershed: cuenca hidrográfica

watershed: cuenca hidrográfica

Check out this short video (by international allies) about the inspiring struggle of the Salvadoran people to save their watershed from being ruined by mining.

Sunday, May 22, 2016

from the ground up: desde la base


For several years now the grassroots movement in the US working to change (i.e. demilitarize) the US-Colombia relationship and support peace movements in Colombia has done annual days of prayer and action. This year's are this weekend, May 22nd and 23rd, and the slogan is

Building Peace from the Ground Up | Construyendo la Paz Desde la Base

Because "We recognize though that a true and lasting peace isn't guaranteed with the signing of an accord, it must be built from the ground up."

Every year for the last several there has been a different craft project everyone is asked to do and send in to symbolize one thing or another. This year it's "sowing seeds of peace".


So hey, if you're planting seeds for spring, have them do double duty and post pics of it for peacebuilding! But easier still, if you live in the US please use this quick and easy form to send a letter to your member of Congress outlining ways they can support the Colombian peace process.



Saturday, May 7, 2016

paro armado: armed lockdown or armed general work stoppage

I would absolutely not translate this as armed strike, I think that is misleading and will make most listeners think that a union is on strike and carrying guns on the picket line. Instead it refers to when the paramilitaries in Colombia shut down a town or region. They announce that there will be a shut down, and what that means is that if you open your business, drive your car, even walk down the street you might get shot (or have your cab set on fire, as in these photos). Entire cities become ghost towns on these days.

I had the privilege of interpreting for Alfredo Molano over the past few days, and I was surprised that in many of his meetings in Ottawa people did not seem to have heard of the recent paro armado in Colombia. As he repeatedly emphasized, it is extremely telling that the paramilitaries were able to completely shut down 1/3 of the country for several days. They didn't even have to walk around on the streets with guns to do so - they have instilled so much fear from years of massacres and assassinations that simply their threats (circulated on social media no less) were enough to keep everyone home.

The recent surge of paramilitary activity in Colombia, which has also included a wave of assassinations and attacks on human rights defenders, is extremely dangerous for the peace accords. As Molano again repeatedly emphasized, the guerrillas will not lay down arms if they are just going to be killed off by the paramilitaries as soon as they do. It would be suicide to sign up for a second Union Patriotica massacre. Of course this is precisely why the paramilitaries are surging, since they want to block a peace agreement.

The president of Colombia has responded by announcing, in the past few days, more intense military attacks on the paramilitaries. The problem is that large sections of the Colombian military (though not all) are on very friendly terms with the paramilitaries - as was quite dramatically illustrated during the paro armado during which they simply looked the other way.

It may actually be that the US has more ability to influence the Colombian army than the Colombian government itself. That is my take, not Molano's, but as he pointed out, the Colombian army is set up such that to ascend in rank you have to attend training in the US. If the US truly cut off training at the School of the Americas and other institutions for those who were not actively working against the paramilitaries, that would go a long ways to supporting peace in Colombia.

This week the US offered to share intelligence with Colombia on the paramilitaries. I was quite surprised to hear that they hadn't already been doing that. I hope that the US will step up and do more.

I would also love to hear Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, who recently met with President Santos, explicitly say that Colombia needs to deal with the paramilitary threat to achieve peace. Santos seems convinced, but the more international pressure there is, the more the extreme right in Colombia may get the message.

Sunday, April 24, 2016

chicharrón (Colombia): problem

Check out this lovely little video which offers crucial background on the war in Colombia.


Saturday, April 16, 2016

mermelada (Colombia): pork barrel spending

mermelada (Colombia): pork barrel spending

I ran across this translation in an article in the New Republic analyzing the difficulties Colombia will face after peace accords are signed.

Here are a couple of paragraphs to give you a taste of it, including the use of the term:

"The exercise of extrajudicial repression by regional elites is a tradition old enough to be considered a structural aspect of Colombian governance. Because the central government lacks the ability, legitimacy, and will to assert itself in the far-flung enclaves of Colombia’s notoriously difficult terrain, it’s dependent on clientalist party machines to maintain stability and collect votes in those areas. This arrangement has proven durable, so long as the mermelada—marmalade, the Colombian equivalent of pork barrel spending—gets spread around. But historically, it has meant that any attempts at meaningful nationwide reform—of the kinds being hashed out in Havana—are quite literally dead on arrival once they reach the regions where they’re most needed.

But for Santos, there may be a more immediate danger than the backlash of the reactionary right. The economic model that’s been built on this system of state-sanctioned bloodletting is beginning to wobble under the weight of its own contradictions. Oil prices have plummeted since the start of the FARC peace process. What Santos once heralded as a “locomotor” of economic growth is now a sinkhole in the heart of his budget. At a time when the government is essentially committing itself to massive state-building in Colombia’s guerrilla-controlled territories, Santos is passing austerity measures to stay in the good graces of Western financial institutions. Inflation is high, his approval ratings are tanking, and Colombians are being asked to ration energy—despite living in a country that is among the world’s largest producers of oil and coal."

read on here 

Monday, April 4, 2016

volunteer as either an interpreter or translator for the World Social Forum in Montreal



If you have professional interpreting experience and are willing to volunteer your services with the babels collective for the World Social Forum in Montreal in August (9th through 14th), or could help with translations beforehand, fill out this form to express interest.  If selected they will pay your air fare and set you up with solidarity housing.

Saturday, April 2, 2016

con la lápida en el pecho: with one foot in the grave

This expression gets used in the fantastic short video below of a visit back to Colombia by top FARC negotiators to talk about the progress of the peace negotiations. It was made by Nadja Drost and aired on the PBS newshour. If you are interested in the peace process it is well worth your 8 minutes.